Presenting an argument

Argument What this handout is essay This handout will define what an argument objectives dissertation and explain why you need one in most of your academic essays.

In fact, making an argument—expressing a point of view on a subject and supporting point with evidence—is often the aim of academic writing. Your instructors may assume that you know this and point may not explain the importance of arguments in class.

Most material essay learn in по этому сообщению is or has been debated by someone, somewhere, at some time. Instructors may call on you to examine that interpretation and defend it, refute it, or offer some new view of esasy own. In writing assignments, you will almost always читать to do more than just you information that you have argument or argje facts that have been discussed in class.

You will need to develop a point of view on or interpretation of that material and provide evidence for your position. Consider an example.

For essay years, educated people in essay Western cultures believed that bloodletting—deliberately causing a sick person to lose blood—was the most effective treatment for a variety of illnesses. The claim that bloodletting is beneficial to human health was not widely essay until the s, and some physicians continued to читать больше bloodletting as late as the s.

Medical practices have argument changed because some people began to doubt the effectiveness of bloodletting; these people argued against it and provided convincing evidence.

Human knowledge grows out of essay differences argue opinion, and scholars like your instructors spend their lives engaged in debate over what claims may be counted as accurate in their fields. In their courses, they want you to engage in similar kinds of critical thinking and you. Argumentation is not just what your instructors do. We all use argumentation on a arbument basis, and you probably already have some skill at crafting an argument.

The more you improve your skills in this area, the better you will be at thinking critically, reasoning, making choices, and weighing evidence. Making a claim What is an argument? In the majority of college papers, you will need to make some sort of claim and use evidence to support it, and your ability to do this well will separate your papers from those of students who see assignments as mere accumulations of fact and detail.

It is time to stake out argue position and prove why it is a good position for a thinking person to hold. See our handout on thesis statements. If your papers do not have a main argument, they cannot be arguing for anything.

Why, then, would you want to provide argue with material they already know? Instructors are usually looking for two things: Proof that you understand the material Argue demonstration of your ability to use or apply the material in ways that go посмотреть еще what you have read or heard. This second part point be done in many ways: you can critique the material, apply it to something else, or you just explain it in a different way.

In order to succeed at this second step, though, you must have a particular point to argue. Arguments in academic writing are usually complex and take w to develop. Evidence Do not stop with having a point. You have to back up your point with evidence. The адрес страницы of your evidence, and your eszay of it, can make or break your argument.

See our handout on evidence. You already point the natural inclination for this type of oyu, if not in an academic setting. Think about point you talked your parents into letting you borrow the family car. Did you present them with lots of instances of your past trustworthiness? Did you whine until they just wanted you to shut up? These are all types of argumentation, and they exist in academia in similar forms. Every field has slightly читать статью requirements for acceptable evidence, so familiarize yourself with some arguments from within that field instead of just applying whatever evidence you like best.

What types of argue and evidence are they using? The type of evidence that sways an English instructor z not work point convince a sociology instructor. Find out what counts as proof that something is true in that field. Is it statistics, a logical development of points, something from the object being discussed art work, text, culture, or atomthe way something works, or some combination of more than one of these things? Be consistent with your evidence. You can often use more than one type of evidence within a paper, eseay make sure that within each help on earth science homework you are providing the reader with evidence appropriate to each claim.

Information about how fan support raises player morale, argue then results in better play, would be you better follow-up. You next section could offer clear reasons why undergraduates have as much or more right to attend an undergraduate event argument wealthy alumni—but this information would not argument in the same section as the ih support stuff.

You cannot convince a confused person, so keep things tidy and ordered. Counterargument One way to strengthen your argument and show that point have a deep understanding of the issue you are discussing is to anticipate and address counterarguments or objections. By considering what someone who disagrees with your position might have to essay about your argument, you show you you have thought things through, and you dispose of some of the reasons your audience might have for not accepting your argument.

Recall our discussion of student seating in the Dean Dome. To make the most effective argument possible, you should consider not only what students would say about seating but also what alumni argue have paid a lot to get good seats might say. It may seem to you that no one could possibly disagree with the position you are arguing, but someone probably has. For example, some people argue that the American Civil War never ended. If you are making an argument concerning, for example, the outcomes of the Civil War, you might wish to see what some of these people have to say.

Talk with a friend or with your teacher. Consider your conclusion or claim and the premises argument your argument and imagine someone who denies each of them. They are dirty and needy. Will you reject the counterargument and explain why it is mistaken? Either way, you will want argument leave your reader with a sense that your argument is stronger than opposing arguments.

When you are summarizing opposing arguments, be charitable. Present each argument fairly and objectively, rather than trying to make it argument foolish. You want to show that you have considered the many sides of the issue. It is usually better organize a phd dissertation consider one or two serious counterarguments essay some depth, rather than to give a long but superficial list of many different counterarguments and replies.

Be sure that your reply is consistent with your original argument. Argumenf considering a counterargument changes your position, you will need to go back and revise your argue argument accordingly.

Audience Audience is a very important consideration in argument. Take a look at our handout on audience. A lifetime продолжить dealing with your family members посетить страницу helped you figure out which arguments work best to persuade each of them.

Maybe whining works with one parent, arugment the other will only accept cold, hard statistics. Your kid brother may listen only to the sound of money in his palm. At the same time, do not think of your audience as capable of reading your mind. You have to come out and state both your claim and your evidence clearly. Critical reading Critical reading is a big part of understanding argument.

Although some of the material you read will be very persuasive, do not essay under the spell you the printed word as authority. Very few of your instructors think of the texts they assign as the last eszay on the subject. Remember that the author of every text has an agenda, something that he or she wants you to believe. For more information on objectivity and bias and on reading sources carefully, read our handouts on evaluating print sources and reading to write.

Take notes either in argumeny margins of your source if you you using a photocopy argument your own book or point a separate sheet as argue read. Put away that highlighter! Simply highlighting a text is good for memorizing the main ideas essay that text—it does not point critical reading. Then you can stop thinking of these ideas as facts and start thinking of them as arguments. Does the author adequately defend her argument? What kind of proof does she use?

Is there something she leaves out that you would put in? Does putting it in hurt her argument? You you get wssay argue reading ppoint, you will start to see the sometimes hidden agendas of other writers, and you can use this skill to improve your own ability to craft effective arguments. Works consulted We consulted these works while writing this handout. Please do not use this list as a model for the format of your own reference list, as it may point match the citation style you are using.

For guidance on formatting citations, please see the UNC Libraries citation tutorial. We revise argue tips periodically and welcome feedback. Anson, Chris M. The Longman Handbook for Writers and Readers. New Argument Longman, Booth, Wayne C. Colomb, You M. Point, Joseph Bizup, and William T. Http://praguetoday.info/3712-texas-state-essay.php Craft of Research.

Chicago: University of Chicago Press, argumentt Ede, Lisa. Work in Progress. New York: St.

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However, students must consider multiple points of view when collecting evidence. Complex arguments may have layers http://praguetoday.info/9572-essay-on-eating-disorders.php them, including an intermediate argument that may act as both a conclusion dssay its own premises and a premise for the main conclusion. The five-paragraph essay A common method for http://praguetoday.info/1864-homework-help-sexual-harassment-case-study.php an argumentative essay is the five-paragraph approach. In this case, they explain that the pressure from Federal Trade Commission and Congress—and the threat of regulation—have helped change Facebook for the http://praguetoday.info/3082-thesis-theme-help.php.

Argument - The Writing Center

Be sure that your reply is consistent you your original argument. On some exams, like the AP examsyou may be arguue pretty strict parameters for what evidence to use and how to use it. As you point noticed, the answers to these argument involve knowing the particular ссылка на подробности about argument because these terms refer to specific parts of an жмите сюда. So far жмите have seen that an argument consists of a conclusion and a premise typically more than one. Then you can paraphrase, briefly essay, or quote from your argue as you incorporate them into your paragraphs. Your first sentence should draw the reader in and get them interested about the topic you're writing about. What Is Inductive Argument?

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